What is Electron Asymmetry? How Does It Affect Our Universe? The Mysteries of Gravity are Addressed by Douglas B. Ettinger

All the laws of nature originate from symmetry. In physics, there are the laws of invariance or conservation laws; in chemistry, the formation of crystalline and molecular structures; in mathematics, geometric transformations of reflection and rotation; in biology, the division of living cells and similar sides about an axis at least in two dimensions; and in quantum objects, proton and electron parity.
Symmetry is harmonious proportion and balance. The lack of symmetry is asymmetry or imbalance. We, humans, see evidence of asymmetry every day in normal objects such as plants, rotation of the human body, and the fractals of shorelines, but our thinking is dominated by symmetrical objects and concepts.
Asymmetry is required in nature even more than symmetry. Without asymmetry, the evolution of life would not be possible. For larger organisms require the asymmetrical positioning of internal organs to function on a much larger scale than simple single cells and bacteria. Asymmetry is required for living cells to divide slightly differently for millions and billions of years making it possible for flora and fauna systems to evolve into more complex systems. But asymmetry was much more important at the beginning of time shortly after the beginning of matter when fundamental particles were being created.
From the study of particle physics, we know of the existence of basic particles and anti-particles. When these particles meet, they destroy each other creating energy in the form of gamma rays. All things that exist today are made of particles and do not arbitrarily vanish after meeting anti-particle brethren.
When particles and anti-particles were being made after the creation of matter an asymmetry of particles over anti-particles occurred owing to our very existence. An example of an anti-particle is the positron that has the opposite spin and charge of an electron with all other properties being the same.
When these two particles meet, they annihilate each other creating only energy that obeys the equation E=mc2.

Other known asymmetries in particle physics are created in collider experiments. They are the forward-back asymmetry, the left-right asymmetry, and the charge asymmetry of weak interactions. An example is a neutrino only being left-handed and an anti-neutrino only being right-handed. In fundamental physics, parity is considered invariant except for these known asymmetries. Parity is considered a basic property of electromagnetic, strong force, and gravitational interactions. This icon of invariance or its violation for basic particles will be studied more closely in this journal. In molecular physics, asymmetry is always present, although not called such, because of isotopes (differing number of proton and neutron ratios) and ionization (differing numbers of protons and electrons or charge ratios). The forces between the masses of sub-atomic particles vary significantly with no heed for symmetry. The bigger objects such as all the different types of celestial bodies vary in the same way. Indeed, without asymmetry being the driver for evolutionary change in the particle realm and the largest objects of the celestial realm, creation would never have a chance to get started from using the basic particles of the universe.

One suspected asymmetry, not proven yet, will be examined by this journal. That asymmetry is called electron asymmetry or the imbalance of electrical charges in the universe. Shortly after the creation of matter, when particles were being born, there were significantly more electrons than protons produced.

The parity of charges assumed in standard electromagnetism (EM) theory did not exist. But, where is the evidence of this violation of parity? All normal molecular matter, unless in a plasma state, is known to be neutral or have equal amounts of positive and negative charges. Even a star like our Sun is considered to have an equal amount of charges except for local conditions such as flares and sunspots. The only major force created by our Sun is gravitational whose effect reaches far into the galaxy, although minor electromagnetic forces do emanate from this star in the form of solar winds, as they do for any other normal star. These electromagnetic effects are more local and much less significant so it is assumed. So, let’s apply a thought experiment and assume what would happen to an excess of electrons that were created during the beginning of matter creation. Due to the known requirement of parity of charge, these extra electrons would hurriedly be looking for a mating opposite charge or proton. In doing so they would mix rather evenly among the existing baryons (protons and neutrons). As the baryons began to clump and eventually form the first stars, clouds of plasma, and cooling molecular clouds, these excess electrons would stay nearby the existing protons inside these systems of matter trying their best to match up with a possible unwed proton. As time went onward, the first massive stars blew apart creating more massive stars and clouds eventually creating the first galaxies. These massive stars would reform and explode again eventually forming the known observable matrix of smaller-size, longer-lived stars we see today. All the time during these chaotic processes the excess electrons fought hard to maintain an even distribution throughout all the conglomerations of newly created masses to maintain and improve their chances of joining a positively charged proton. Of course, this parity could never be achieved; hence, excess electrons reside in every existing object such as stars, planets, molecular clouds, and the plasma of interstellar and intergalactic space.

If this asymmetry of electrons actually happened and still exists today, then what is its manifestation?

Indeed, that manifestation is one of the most important parameters in the universe and was required from the very beginning to form the largest clumps of matters and eventually the first stars. The initial and continuing electron asymmetry is proposed to be gravity. The electromagnetic radiation due to photon emission from these excess electrons locked inside each item of matter - from giant molecular clouds to stars to planets to all smaller separate masses such the iron balls in a Cavendish Experiment (used to determine the gravitational constant, G) cause an attraction known as gravity. These excess electrons in each object containing baryons are trying to attract the protons from any other nearby object proportionally to its mass and closeness. All objects have excess electrons and are trying to attract other objects that have potentially unwed protons or positive charges. Positive charges such as the protons in each object do not repel the other object because they are happily wed to existing electrons within their respective object.

An excellent question in this thought experiment is why the negative charges of electrons inside each object do not repel the other object. Again, we must utilize a second thought experiment. Perhaps the electrons within each object are so busy or preoccupied with scurrying and competing to find a free proton orbital within their own object that they do not have the energy to repel the existing excess electrons of another object. Only the combined energy of excess electrons of each object act as a system to attract protons of another object outside their system. Another way of talking about this condition is to assume the bound state between an electron and a proton for attraction is more powerful and acts farther than the bound state between two electrons for repulsion. Also, the bound state of the individual excess electrons is extremely more than the bound state of the valence electrons acting to form the atoms of a conglomerate of matter. This bound state of the excess electrons reaches way beyond the surface of any conglomerate of matter. This much stronger, far-reaching bound state of excess electrons becomes the gravity field of every object with any significant mass. This includes items as small as dust particles and raindrops.